Template Method Design Pattern

Download the working example demo code in java from my GIT repositoryhttps://github.com/premaseem/designPatterns/tree/4bb9beca7bab5b5e71d02b76e4f1ad48fce4aca6/ZipDownloadableProjects

Example Code Briefings : Template Method Fruit Juice extraction example defines a recipe (with exact steps and quantity) to prepare the drink which is kept in the extract class. However the flavor of the fruit Juice can be changed by it subclasses by overriding (which is defined as hooks/abstractor in parent abstract class).

Intent:
Define the skeleton of an algorithm in an operation, deferring some steps to client subclasses. Template Method lets subclasses redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm’s structure.
Base class declares algorithm ‘placeholders’, and derived classes implement the placeholders.

Problem:
Two different components have significant similarities, but demonstrate no reuse of common interface or implementation. If a change common to both components becomes necessary, duplicate effort must be expended.

Definition:
Template method design pattern is to define an algorithm as skeleton of operations and leave the details to be implemented by the child classes. The overall structure and sequence of the algorithm is preserved by the parent class.
The component designer decides which steps of an algorithm are invariant (or standard), and which are variant (or customizable). The invariant steps are implemented in an abstract base class, while the variant steps are either given a default implementation, or no implementation at all. The variant steps represent “hooks”, or “placeholders”, that can, or must, be supplied by the component’s client in a concrete derived class.

The component designer mandates the required steps of an algorithm, and the ordering of the steps, but allows the component client to extend or replace some number of these steps.

Template Method is used prominently in frameworks. Each framework implements the invariant pieces of a domain’s architecture, and defines “placeholders” for all necessary or interesting client customization options. In so doing, the framework becomes the “center of the universe”, and the client customizations are simply “the third rock from the sun”. This inverted control structure has been affectionately labelled “the Hollywood principle” – “don’t call us, we’ll call you”.

Template Method scheme

Structure:
Template Method scheme
The implementation of template_method() is: call step_one(), call step_two(), and call step_three(). step_two() is a “hook” method – a placeholder. It is declared in the base class, and then defined in derived classes. Frameworks (large scale reuse infrastructures) use Template Method a lot. All reusable code is defined in the framework’s base classes, and then clients of the framework are free to define customizations by creating derived classes as needed.

Example:
Daily routine of a worker.

Template Method example

Rules of thumb:
Strategy is like Template Method except in its granularity.
Template Method uses inheritance to vary part of an algorithm. Strategy uses delegation to vary the entire algorithm.
Strategy modifies the logic of individual objects. Template Method modifies the logic of an entire class.
Factory Method is a specialization of Template Method.

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