Python: Quick script to create directory

Here is simple python code to smartly create a folder if it does not exisit


import os

def createFolder(directory):
        if not os.path.exists(directory):
    except OSError:
        print ('Error: Creating directory. ' +  directory)

# Example
# Creates a folder in the current directory called data

Python: printing on the same line (progress indicator)

In Java we have print which allow to print in same line
and println allow us to print on new line

But in python print always prints on new line, that makes it to difficult to print progress.


sys.stdout.write will print without return carriage

import sys
sys.stdout.write("progressing xxx")

Code running which needs to show progress

Python: Check if all elements in a list are equal

# Pythonic ways of checking if all
# items in a list are equal:

>>> lst = ['a', 'a', 'a']

>>> len(set(lst)) == 1

>>> all(x == lst[0] for x in lst)

>>> lst.count(lst[0]) == len(lst)

# I ordered those from "most Pythonic" to "least Pythonic" 
# and  "least efficient" to "most efficient". 
# The len(set()) solution is idiomatic,  but constructing 
# a set is less efficient memory and speed-wise.

Python: list comprehensions

# Python's list comprehensions are awesome.

vals = [expression 
        for value in collection 
        if condition]

# This is equivalent to:

vals = []
for value in collection:
    if condition:

# Example:

>>> even_squares = [x * x for x in range(10) if not x % 2]
>>> even_squares
[0, 4, 16, 36, 64]

Python: Dict get with default value to void key not found error

# The get() method on dicts
# and its "default" argument

name_for_userid = {
    382: "Aseem",
    590: "Bob",
    951: "Dilbert",

def greeting(userid):
    return "Hi %s!" % name_for_userid.get(userid, "there")

>>> greeting(382)
"Hi Aseem!"

>>> greeting(333333)
"Hi there!"

Python: emulate switch/case statements by using dict with lambda functions

# Because Python has first-class functions they can
# be used to emulate switch/case statements

def dispatch_if(operator, x, y):
    if operator == 'add':
        return x + y
    elif operator == 'sub':
        return x - y
    elif operator == 'mul':
        return x * y
    elif operator == 'div':
        return x / y
        return None

def dispatch_dict(operator, x, y):
    return {
        'add': lambda: x + y,
        'sub': lambda: x - y,
        'mul': lambda: x * y,
        'div': lambda: x / y,
    }.get(operator, lambda: None)()

>>> dispatch_if('mul', 2, 8)

>>> dispatch_dict('mul', 2, 8)

>>> dispatch_if('unknown', 2, 8)

>>> dispatch_dict('unknown', 2, 8)

Python: Functions are first-class citizens

# Functions are first-class citizens in Python.

# They can be passed as arguments to other functions,
# returned as values from other functions, and
# assigned to variables and stored in data structures.

>>> def myfunc(a, b):
...     return a + b
>>> funcs = [myfunc]
>>> funcs[0]
<function myfunc at 0x107012230>
>>> funcs[0](2, 3)